Polytheistic Voices: Interview with Dr. Edward Butler

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This week I had the pleasure of interviewing my friend and colleague Dr. Edward Butler. Edward has been doing crucial work in reclaiming our philosophical traditions as specifically polytheistic traditions. He’s a specialist in the Neo-Platonic philosopher Proclus and also one of the editors of Walking the Worlds Journal. Thank you, Edward, for taking the time to answer these questions.

GK: Please introduce yourself, Edward. I’ve known you for years and I’m familiar with your work, but I”ll bet a lot of my readers aren’t. What is it you do as a philosopher?

Edward Butler: When I first began to study philosophy in graduate school, I’d already been a practicing polytheist for a number of years. I had a notion of the need for defending and articulating polytheism, but I was by no means certain whether my work in philosophy would serve this function directly or only in a more oblique fashion. And I was comfortable with that, because I felt a vocation toward philosophy in any case.

But I found rather quickly when I started on my own initiative studying the ancient Platonic tradition, that if I ignored what all the secondary literature was telling me, and just read the philosophers themselves, that this was a philosophy that didn’t merely accommodate polytheism, but was radically polytheistic to its core. This was a very original reading in the context of modern scholarship. As originality is one of the principal requirements for a doctoral dissertation, I felt that if I could just follow through on what would be considered by modern scholars as a daring argument I would be successful.

The idea for what would become my dissertation, “The Metaphysics of Polytheism in Proclus”, came to me as early as the first semester of my graduate coursework in philosophy, but everything I studied subsequently in the history of philosophy helped me to understand the significance of the argument, a significance beyond narrow religious interests, having to do with the most basic issues in metaphysics.

Metaphysics is a very intricate structure built up over millennia by many individual hands, and even a relatively small change in the understanding of a key concept can change the way this entire structure fits together; undoing a historic misappropriation of arguably the most important concept in metaphysics, namely the nature of unity and multiplicity, has the potential to change how a great many other pieces in this machine fit together.

GK: How did you come to polytheism?

Edward Butler: I was raised in an agnostic/atheist home, but I seem to have been on the path to polytheism already when I was very small. Two of the earliest books I remember reading, and I read them again and again, were the D’Aulaires’ Book of Norse Myths and Book of Greek Myths. When we had an Icelandic exchange student staying with us one year, I pestered her about whether people in Iceland still worshiped the old Gods (she said that some did). I also remember a book on ancient Egyptian art with images I stared at. I was fascinated with archaeology. All of these interests stayed with me, but I think that at a certain point they went into a kind of dormancy again until I was sixteen or so, when I began having numinous dreams. I was engaging in a bit of psychic adventuring, I suppose you could say, and it eventually resulted in a theophany from the deity I have regarded ever since as my patron. I’ve built up a diverse personal pantheon since then.

GK: I absolutely adore D’aulaire’s books. I think they were my introduction to both the Greek Gods and the Norse as well. I still treasure my copies! Seriously awesome children’s books aside, what are your thoughts on piety and polytheism? How does your awareness and education as a philosopher impact your devotion as a polytheist?

Edward Butler: I’ve never found piety and philosophy to be in conflict for me. On the contrary, it was engagement with the Gods that steered me in the direction of philosophy as opposed to the predominantly artistic orientation that I’d had before. And yet, at the same time, I saw philosophy as a fundamentally creative endeavor, and thus as an extension of the artistic search for expression. From this perspective, philosophy is just a unique and particularly demanding medium. One cannot simply make any moves that one likes. There is more constraint than freedom, and yet its very nature is liberating. My role as a philosopher is to seek truth; but I’ve never had the slightest notion that this would lead me away from the Gods, rather than toward Them—how could it? The notion that philosophy and piety should be in some natural tension is a product of the profoundly dysfunctional relationship established between philosophy and religion by Christianity, nothing more and nothing less.

GK: Seeing you approach philosophy as your vocation has certainly impacted my own respect for the field and my growing awareness of just how important it was to our ancestors. I know not everyone has had the benefit of engaging discussions with you so I’m going to ask: Why is philosophy so important to polytheists?

Edward Butler: Philosophy is more important for modern polytheists than it was for ancient polytheists, because there is no surviving polytheistic tradition which is not critically endangered by monotheism’s weaponization of philosophy. For those reviving sundered traditions, the need to be able to critique the intellectual legacy of hegemonic monotheism is even more urgent. People will come up against limitations in their ability to conceptualize their experience of the Gods and the nature of their relationship to Them, and that makes them vulnerable to the omnipresent dismissal of that experience in the contemporary world, the treatment of a relationship to real Gods as naïve or incoherent. Polytheists need philosophy in order to get past those bottlenecks in understanding that hinder their devotion, or threaten to undermine their worship altogether.

Philosophers were already doing this, so to speak, therapeutic work in antiquity, but it is more urgent today, where theism as such, which simply is polytheism, has been under sustained assault from what I increasingly see as a kind of atheism. That is, I increasingly see monotheism per se as atheism, because its founding moment is not any positive religious experience, but rather the moment in which that experience is understood to negate any other experience to the degree that it does not fall within certain intellectually defined parameters. This appropriation of primary religious experience makes monotheism as such distinct in a certain sense even from the actual religious experience of people in the monotheistic faiths, because insofar as they follow the logic of monotheism through to its ultimate conclusion, it will negate even their own religious experience. The proper understanding of philosophy’s purpose and implications is necessary to arrest this process.

Beyond this, however, there is the simple fact that polytheists invented philosophy, not only in Greece, but in India and in China and everywhere that we have a tradition sufficiently intact to see it. In all of these places there is a wisdom tradition that is at least nascently philosophical. These traditions were not separate from theology, but they expanded upon the basis provided by theophany, by the experience of living immortals, to perfect the arts of reasoned inquiry and to found the sciences. Polytheists must not let these traditions be alienated from them through the great historic lie that philosophy, reason, leads ultimately to monotheism. To believe this lie would in itself impair the flourishing of our traditions, and could even doom them, because it would cut us off from our own histories as well as from the innate faculties that have made humans such extraordinarily successful creatures. Polytheists have a duty, I would argue, to develop their wisdom traditions to the fullest extent possible. It’s not sufficient to worship with your heart, you have to worship with your head as well.

GK: I’ve been consistently appalled at the stripping of the Gods from the ancient philosophers, something I encounter all the time in academia. The first time I really came face to face with it in a theology class I think I walked out shell shocked. I don’t think until that moment, I truly realized what a crucial battle it was that you’re fighting. That being said, what advice would you give someone just starting out, both in exploring philosophy and in venerating the Gods?

Edward Butler: My own practice has always had an improvised quality, and so I can’t tell people that they ought to seek out a more structured tradition, but I do respect the work that people are doing to build those kinds of traditions back up, or maintain and strengthen those already in existence. Ultimately, it is one’s relationship with one’s Gods that is the beginning and the end of all practice, and so all I can really say is to pursue that with all the tools available to you and follow it wherever it leads you.

With respect to philosophy, I would say that I think it is important to be at least somewhat interested in all philosophies. You cannot say in advance what problems might end up being most important to you, and what approaches might prove fruitful. There will be plenty of time later to be dismissive of this or that approach, but it’s crucial early on to allow yourself to feel the force of arguments with which you may not intuitively agree. Have enough courage to recognize that while you may not yet have the tools to defend your intuitions to the degree you might like, you shouldn’t as a result hide from the arguments people have made. Learn to appreciate arguments for their elegance, even if you disagree. Seeing an argument in the purity of its structure, you will grasp its potential for application and transformation far beyond its nominal intent.

GK: Can you tell me a little bit about your current work? I know you have some fascinating things in the works. What projects are you currently working on and what do you have coming up?

Edward Butler: I’m currently working on a project supported by a grant from the Dharma Civilization Foundation, about ideological issues in Western Indology. It’s an adjunct to the book The Nay Science: A History of German Indology by Vishwa Adluri and Joydeep Bagchee (Oxford University Press, 2014). The short book I’m writing is designed to make that text more accessible to a wider audience, and especially for Hindus who want to be engaged in the intellectual defense of their traditions. It also broadens the perspective of the argument put forth in The Nay Science in the direction of the intellectual defense of all polytheist traditions, both continuous and indigenous as well as revived and diasporic.

In connection with that project, I’d also like to continue to deepen my engagement with Indian philosophy. I made a start of this in a conference paper (“Bhakti and Henadology”, available from my site), but there is further work I need to do in that area. A great deal of mischief has been wrought by monotheizing Western interpretations of Indian philosophy, and since these misreadings bear such close resemblance to the kinds of distortions that plague modern readings of ancient Greek philosophy, I believe that I have a particular contribution to make in disrupting them and helping to open a space for a more fruitful relationship between Indian and European philosophies. This is an effort to which polytheists of every tradition cannot afford to be indifferent; none of us can ignore the historical situation in which we find ourselves, and in which the fate of all polytheisms are bound up with one another. And in this, ideas and ideologies are as important as facts on the ground.

Other projects will, I am certain, pop up on their own. So much of my work recently has been driven by what others have asked me to do, and that will likely continue.

GK: Thank you so much for taking the time to answer these questions. Folks, you can follow Edward on twitter @EPButler or at his website https://henadology.wordpress.com. He’s also the author of two books: “Essays on the Metaphysics of Polytheism in Proclus” and “Essays on a Polytheistic Philosophy of Religion.” His academic work may be found at his academia.edu page and also in Walking the Worlds.

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Posted on March 18, 2017, in community, Education, hellenic things, Polytheism, Uncategorized and tagged , , , , . Bookmark the permalink. 14 Comments.

  1. Thank you for doing this, Galina; and many thanks to you, Edward, for all of your work!

    I hope this gets a lot of readers…too many, I feel, have dismissed Edward’s work because they don’t get it from the start, and have assumptions about what it is without really actually looking at what he’s saying…even amongst some otherwise astute and intelligent polytheists, who are so poisoned to the idea of “philosophy” (and [Neo]Platonic philosophy in particular) that they won’t give it a chance, nor question their own assumptions about it.

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  2. Richard Norris

    I’ve seen issues with philosophy in polytheism myself, not in an explosive fight-or-flight way, but more along the lines of oblique avoidance of it or downplaying its importance. I suspect that it’s actually the limiting aspect of philosophy that raises the hair on peoples heads, running alongside a fear of developing a dogmatic system similar to ones developed by the “Platonic” Church Fathers or Aquinas.

    So far as it goes for how ancient polytheism is treated…yeah. I can’t even enumerate all of the times I’ve seen polytheistic practice or philosophy mocked, derided, and seen as less-than. It’s time there was an accounting.

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  3. A great deal of mischief has been wrought by monotheizing Western interpretations of Indian philosophy, and since these misreadings bear such close resemblance to the kinds of distortions that plague modern readings of ancient Greek philosophy, —
    I like the use of mischief in this context and misreadings as well. I have encountered similar things when researching Sumner religion. The movement to explain everything in monotheistic terms or that everyone was moving that way. Such as how people were moving from darkness – primitive animalistic Gods to eventually some sort of monotheism. Marduk and Assur are presented as Babylonian and Assyrian monotheistic Gods. It also permeates how people actually thought religiously – such the idea of what is sin in a Christian context.

    The other damage of course of monotheizing everything is what occurs with closed religions such Native American. People who know only the New Age teachings or books written by folklorists believe that they know what Native American religions were all about. Especially the notion that everyone only had the “Great Spirit” as the supreme and only deity.

    Then there is the New Age interpretations of Hinduism which has spread into Western culture such as “karma” and the like. Everything seems to move from a modern Western intellectual point of view and not any understanding of any other point of view.

    Liked by 4 people

    • What’s worse is that the current state of what is considered the evolution of civilization is the following notion: Polytheism==>Monotheism==>Atheism. With the latter being the most “civilized”.

      Liked by 3 people

      • ganglerisgrove

        ah yes, the “hierarchy of religions’ that’s called — utter bullshit of course (and they have the evolution quite reversed).

        Liked by 3 people

      • What I find the funniest about this “evolutionary” view of religion (sometimes with other things–e.g. animism, deism, “philosophy” understood as “questioning the Gods,” etc.–given as stages as well) is that the people who most often are proponents of it, if they don’t include atheism (because “things can’t possibly develop beyond monotheism since it is THE TRUTH!”), is that they also have beliefs that are highly skeptical of the concept of “evolution” itself! 😉

        Liked by 2 people

  4. Edward’s work will change the philosophical landscape. I only wish I had heard of it sooner. Making it more accessible to non-specialists would, I think, greatly strengthen the polytheist community. His “Neoplatonism and Polytheism” as well as his “Polycentric Polytheism” are particularly great starts to this. Can’t recommend his work enough.

    Liked by 1 person

  5. Thanks very much for this interview. Dr Butler’s work makes me very excited that polytheism can, through philosophy, get the respect and legitimacy that is due to it. He’s so right that the Christian church has weaponized philosophy… people have to be empowered again with intellectual weapons to defend their various faiths.

    Liked by 1 person

  6. Thank you for posting this! I am really excited about the work regarding Indian philosophy. I do asana yoga and bought the most scholarly version of the Yoga Sutras I could find because I was worried that the commentaries in some of them would be New Age or monotheizing. I’m especially interested in a compare/contrast between polytheistic devotion in both systems and am hoping to see more on that as polytheistic philosophy grows in the modern era. ^___^ Edward does a lot of really important and great work that I hope will pave the way for a lot of other academics to grow in this subfield.

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  7. Reblogged this on Temple of Athena the Savior and commented:
    “Philosophy is more important for modern polytheists than it was for ancient polytheists, because there is no surviving polytheistic tradition which is not critically endangered by monotheism’s weaponization of philosophy. For those reviving sundered traditions, the need to be able to critique the intellectual legacy of hegemonic monotheism is even more urgent. People will come up against limitations in their ability to conceptualize their experience of the Gods and the nature of their relationship to Them, and that makes them vulnerable to the omnipresent dismissal of that experience in the contemporary world, the treatment of a relationship to real Gods as naïve or incoherent. Polytheists need philosophy in order to get past those bottlenecks in understanding that hinder their devotion, or threaten to undermine their worship altogether.”

    Like

  8. Ok, I confess…I don’t know what ‘henadology means. I understand the ‘-ology’ means ‘study of’, but I could use some help with the ‘hena-‘. Google has failed me. Please put my mind at rest and let me know what ‘henadology’ means.

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    • Edward P. Butler

      “Henad” in Greek means a unit, from hen, “one”. So henadology is the study of things which are pure “ones”, unique individuals; such are the Gods, for Platonists.

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